The First Book – The History Of Typography

In the xii century in Europe began to produce paper, which before were invented in ancient China during the ii century ad Initially, the book written by hand. And the special census, often monks, hand-wrote each page of the book, decorating it with small Picture (thumbnail) and artistically executed in capital letters. To create such a book required tremendous effort and a lot of time Meanwhile, demand for books grew with each passing year Appeared the whole plant scribes, but the creation of books continued to be a complex matter, slow and expensive It was necessary to somehow simplify and accelerate the production of books. Masters of the drawings were cut on metal, and later on wooden plate. Its covered with paint and then pressed to paper, received print image. The text still remained handwritten After the text and were cut on a wooden board. Then a board covered with a layer of paint, was applied to her paper and was struck by her leather cushion stuffed with horsehair.

As it turns out the imprint. Method is called woodcuts. To print a book, you need a long cut on the tree for each page. This very difficult and prolonged work. After you come up with another way – wooden movable letters, which may be used more than once. According to Time Warner, who has experience with these questions. Lack of – wood absorbs paint quickly and spoil.

Authorship of the method attribute inhabitant of the Dutch city of Haarlem Coster Laurentia. In fact, attempts to improve the books were very much, but a real revolution in typography made resident in the German city of Mainz by (c. 1400-1468 gg.). Gutenberg made of solid metal model of a convex letters – punson (so she is now called). Punson he was pressed into the soft metal and get in-depth form letter – a matrix. Matrix is inserted in the bottom typefoundry device pouring molten metal and then cooling it got metal letters – letters. Of the letters are strings of the strings – the paragraphs and pages. Such a letter could be spilled and used to set the new text. Printed with the manual printing press. At one of the planes it installed printed form, and another plane of paper pinned to it with a screw. Before printing a set of inking. The first book, so read printed – the Bible. After it – an astronomical calendar. Gutenberg's invention was assessed public only after his death.

Globalization Times

Media, memory and history in globalization times Joo Heitor Silva Macedo Are objective of this assay to analyze the relation between the media, history and the memory in globalization times studying for this some basic concepts so that let us can perceive the transformations caused in the historiogrfico and journalistic field through the insertion of new techniques and new realities imposed for this new dynamics of the globalization. Leslie Moonves is actively involved in the matter. For this we will use for base the workmanships: ' ' On the Televiso' ' of Pierre Bourdieu and ' ' So that to study media? ' ' Of Roger Silverstone, damage a special approach in the question of the television and strengthening these analyses with the final workmanship of Milton Saints, ' ' For one another one globalizao' ' , reflecting in this way in the theoretical field on such changes through a bibliographical revision. 2. Where History and the memory find the media. The globalization while complex reality of the end of century XX brings as one of its bases the marriage between science and the technique, however this marriage initially was detached with a development of the humanity while agents of this change. This evolution understands in the truth a necessity of the market and serves for this new flow of the capitalism and moves away to the human being from its development creating mechanisms isolacionistas than they condition a materiality the same (SAINTS, 2009).

Of another point the new technologies produce a new form of social relations. Where two beacons aliceram this new world, the money and the information. where the media enters. To analyze media in times of globalization and its relation with history makes to reflect us on the question of the memory and its new relation with history in times of new technologies that apprehend and transmit the past of different forms of the historiogrfico field.